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避暑山庄 The Summer Mountain Resort
遭暑山庄位于承德市中心北部,被誉为中国现存最大的古典皇家园林。占地564公顷,为颐和园的两倍, The Mountain Resort (the “Mountain Hamlet for Escaping the Summer Heat”) in the north part of Chengde city center has been praised as the largest extant imperial classical garden in China, covering an area of 5.64 million square meters.
北海公园的八倍十公里的宫墙宛若万里长城一般穿行在高山和平原之间。 The 10-kilometer wall around it winds its way through plains and high mountains like the Great Wall.
避暑山庄,依山就势,合理布局,以塞北群山的浑厚雄奇,江南水乡的清新秀美,展示着中华几千年造园艺术的风范。 The Mountain Resort not only features spectacular northern gardens, but also boasts a large number of elaborate architectural works, which is the main characteristic of southern gardens. In other words, it combines the grace of South China with the grandeur of North China.
而其中120多组建筑,随山依水就势,高低错落有致,宛如自然天成,恰似一幅山水画卷,映衬出造园者的聪明与才智。 The Mountain Resort, with a special and rational layout as well as its verdant strange hills, crystalline lake and elegant buildings offers some fine examples of Chinese architecture and landscape gardening.
在山庄著名的七十二景中,凡四字为名的是康熙所题,三字为名的是乾隆所书这些匾额有的来自名言,有的出自警句,清新古朴,道出了每一景观的诗情画意,给山庄增添了浓重的文学色彩。 Making good use of the terrain of the site, over 120 groups of buildings harmoniously combine with nature, suggestive of poetic works of a great master or the unrolling of a long scroll of a Chinese landscape painting. When strolling in the resort, visitors experience this embodiment of the wisdom and originality of the ancient Chinese people.
清代早期,承德只是一个名为“热河上营”的小村落,逐渐发展为清代统治者的后花园,发展成为贵族云集的城市,成为清代的第二个政治中心。 Among those buildings, Emperor kangxi named 36 scenic sites of the resort with four Chinese characters and Qianlong named 36 with only three.
嘉庆在位期间(1723—1735年),取承受先帝恩泽之意,改名为承德。 During the early Qing dynasty, Chengde was just a small village called “Rehe shangying”; but later it gradually became the “backyard” of Qing rulers—the city where the nobility gathered and became the second political center of the Qing dynasty.
为了统一多民族的国家并维护边疆的稳定,康熙频繁北巡,于是在距京师350公里蒙古族游牧的地方建立了木兰围场。开始了大规模的围猎习武活动。史称“秋弥大典”。 During the reign of Emperor Yongzheng (1723-1735),to accommodate wishes of Emperor Kangxi, it was renamed “Chengde”.
每次皇帝北巡或木兰秋弥,都会在长城以北逗留三到五个月,每岁围猎活动都需解决沿路的吃、住、休息及物资运辅等问题,同时也需要一处休息避暑的处所和处理朝政的别苑,因此,沿途陆续建立了二十多座行宫。 In order to foster the unification of the multi-national state and maintain frontier stability, Emperor Kangxi had the Mulan Hunting Ground built for military training purposes
康熙皇帝经过多次视察和认真比较,他认为承德是修建别苑的理想处所,因为承德风景秀美、气候宜人、地处要塞,盛夏平均气温只有24℃,道近北京,骑马不过两天,又直达清王朝的发样地——北方,还可俯视关内,外控蒙古各部。 ?Each time the emperor inspected the north and hunted at Mulan, he would stay for three to five months in those places beyond the Great Wall; thus, more than 20 temporary palaces for the emperor were built.
营建远郊别墅是满族人的习俗,兼具北雄南秀及满族故土自然美的承德恰似满人的故乡。 Emperor Kangxi inspected many places and decided after careful comparison that Chengde was an ideal location for extended residency because of its excellent topography, beautiful landscape and congenial weather. Chengde is close to Beijing and took only two days to reach on horseback. Lying near the pass to the central region, it is geographically important. Its average temperature is 24‘Celsius in the hottest part of summer.
承德不仅是一个休闲和处理朝政的好地方,也是满人避暑和避天花的好处所。 The Manchu people have a traditional custom of building villas away from their? living? place,? and? such? a? fine? natural? environment? combined? the sophistication of southern China and the rustic charm of the Manchu people native land, which is just like the homeland of the Manchu people.
因此,康熙皇帝决定在滦河之畔修建行宫,井亲笔题名“避暑山庄”四个大宇,这里很快成了清王朝在北京之外的处理军政、民族要务的指挥枢纽。 Chengde was not only a place for relaxation and the handling of state affairs, but also a place for the Manchu and Mongolian nobles to escape the summer heat and the infectious disease of smallpox.
正如西方人所说的“罗马已不再是罗马,我身处之地就是罗马”,避暑山庄就是清代的第二个政治中心。 Therefore, Emperor Kangxi ordered a temporary palace built beside the river and named the Imperial Mountain Resort himself. ?
热河行宫始建于康熙四十二年(1703年),康熙五十年(1711年)即已初具规模。 Visiting Westerners said that “Rome is not Rome anymore; the place where I have been has become Rome. “- suggesting that the imperial Mountain Resort is the second political center of the Qing dynasty.
由于热河行官是众行宫的中枢,作用也远远超出普通的行宫。故康熙皇帝为之题名“避暑山庄”,从此避暑山庄也就应运而生。到了乾隆朝,他根据其祖父康熙帝“同心治理再精求”精神,对山庄进行了扩建,直到乾隆五十七年(1792年)山庄工程才最后得竣,历时89年。 Construction of the Mountain Resort commenced in the 42nd year (1703) of Emperor Kangxi’s reign in the Qing dynasty; construction of the resort lasted through the reigns of Emperors Kangxi and Qianlong, and was finally completed after 89 years, in the 57th year of Emperor Qianlong‘s reign.
避暑山庄是仅次于紫禁城的第二个政治中心,是中国四大园林之一。也是世界保存最完整的皇家园林,另外它也是“康乾盛世”的标志,1994年避暑山庄及其周围寺庙被联合国教科文组织列为世界学问遗产。 It was, as a political center of the Qing dynasty, second only to the Forbidden City, and was more important than any other temporary palace between Chengde and Beijing. It occupies a total area of 5.64 square kilometers and is one of the four most famous Chinese gardens and one of the largest and best preserved imperial gardens in the world, formerly used as a summer resort and hunting ground for emperors of the Qing dynasty.
山庄之内根据其功能分为宫殿区、苑景区两大区域。 In addition, it is an emblem of the “Kang Qian Heydays” and was honored as a “World historic and Cultural Heritage” by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization in 1994.
宫殿区位于山庄的南部,由正宫、松鹤斋、万壑松风和东宫四组建筑组成,是清代皇帝、后妃日常起居、理朝论政、举行庆典、宴飨娱乐的地方。 The whole Mountain Resort is divided into two parts--the Palace Area and the Garden Area.
遗憾的是东宫已然被烧毁。 The Palace Area is made up of the Formal Palace, the East palace, Pine Soughing valley and the Hall of the Pine-Crane.
由蓝砖灰瓦组成的宫殿儒雅澹泊,严守封建礼制规整庄严的格局。苑景区分为湖区、平原和山区,地形复杂,西北部峰峦叠嶂,林木繁盛。东南部湖沼区域使人联想起我国江南水乡的优美景色。在山峦与湖沼之间,是一片开阔的平原,恰似北国茫茫草原的风光。 It is a pity that the East palace was burnt down by accident.
整个苑景区的布局,正是清代版图的一个缩影。 The Garden Area is subdivided into a Lake Zone, Plain Zone and Mountain Zone.? The Palace Area located at the southern part of the resort, where the emperor handled the governmental affairs, held celebrations and provided a restful haven for the royal family. Featuring blue bricks and grey tiles, the palace is simple, elegant and natural with an expanse of crystalline lakes, grassland and verdant hills reminiscent of the scenery in the southern reaches of the lower Yangtze.
避暑山庄的宫殿区,建于康熙五十二年,乾隆十九年重新修缮、改建,占地1万平方米。 Te layout of the whole Mountain Resort is an exact reproduction of Qing territory.
根据中国传统的阴阳学说,古代的中国人认为偶数属阴,奇数属阳。 The Palace Area was built in the 52nd year of Emperor Kangxi, and remodeled and rebuilt in the 19th year of Emperor Qianlong, occupying ten- thousand square meters
阴是女性的,阴暗的和消极的;阳是男性的,明亮的和积极的。 According to traditional Chinese Yin (passive) and Yang (active) theory, the ancient Chinese believed that even numbers belong to Yin, while odd numbers belong to Yang.
而数字九是奇数中最大的,所以大部分皇帝使用的宫殿都是由九进院落组成的,九是皇帝的数字, Yin is female, dark, and passive, Yang is male, bright, and active.
古代天子“身居九重”正宫中轴线上坐落的建筑包括有澹泊敬诚殿、四知书屋、烟波致爽殿和烟雨楼。正宫由前朝和后寝组成,是皇帝居住、处理国家大事和举办庆祝仪式和典礼的地方。 The number nine is a maximum among single-digit odd numbers, so the main palace also consists of nine compound courtyard, which could be used only by emperors.
其他的建筑都对称地分布在中轴线的两侧以显示皇室权力的庄严。 The buildings on the axis of the Main Palace include the Hall of Frugality and Placidity, Four Knowledge Study, Hall of Refreshing Mists and Waves, and Viewing Misty Mountain Tower.
丽正门是避暑山庄的正门,也是正宫区的第一道门。 The Main Palace comprises the Front Court and the Back Imperial Bedroom, The palace was where the emperor lived, handled state affairs and held celebrations or ceremonies.
丽正门面阔三楹,上下两层。 ?Other buildings are arranged along the axis symmetrically, displaying the dignity of imperial power.
下层辟有三个方形的门洞。上有城台和阙楼。中间门洞的上方有石匾一块,上面是乾隆帝用满、汉、蒙、藏、维五种文字题写的“丽正门”。 The Gate of Beauty and Righteousness is the main gate as well as the first gate of the nine -compound courtyard.
“丽正”源出于《易经》,丽正门,象征着多民族统一的国家将永远兴盛发展下去。 The main gate has two stories and a 3- bay space on each.
避暑山庄包括大宫门、二宫门。 Above the middle gateway, there is a tablet inscribed in Manchurian, Tibetan ,Chinese ,Uigur, and Mongolian from left to right.
康熙亲笔所书“避暑山庄”四字的镏金钢匾就? 高悬在二宫门内,故称“避暑山庄门”。 The name comes from The Book of Changes [The I Ching], and means that a suitable location will bring righteousness. They symbolize that China is a multinational and united country.
细心的游客常会发现匾上的“避”字多写了一横,让人觉得文武双全的康熙皇帝,怎么会写错字呢?其实清代的“辟”字两种并存,无论哪一种写法都是正确的,再说到书法,为了字体美观大方,当然是多一横的“避”字更妙了。 The next gate of the Main Palace is called “Yueshe”. (Watching Archery) gate, where Qing emperors enjoyed archery contests.
 宫殿区位于规模宏大的皇家园林的南部,占地10万平方米,采用四合院建筑风格,朴素典雅。 A tablet is inscribed with “Imperial Summer Resort” in Mandarin, which was written by Emperor Kangxi himself, from which, as mentioned above, the name “Imperial Summer Resort” was chosen.
正宫的主殿——澹泊敬诚殿, There is an extra stroke in one of the characters. Did the emperor make a mistake?
其作用相当于北京紫禁城的太和殿,是清帝举行重大庆典、百官朝见、接见少数民族首领和外国使节并处理朝政的地方。 The answer is that both characters were in use in the Qing dynasty; but the one inscribed looks more beautiful than the one used today.
六世班禅喇嘛带2000名随从,行1万公里路,艰苦跋涉500个日夜,来到承德拜见皇帝。 The palaces in this large -scale imperial garden were built in a style of quadruple courtyards, with a simple and elegant layout.
澹泊敬诚殿原建于康熙年间,乾隆时用楠木进行改建,所以俗称“楠木殿”。它由楠木、青砖灰瓦和本色柱子组成,谈雅庄重,简朴适度,这种建筑风格和故宫的黄瓦红墙,描金彩绘,堂皇耀目建筑风格形成强烈的对比。 The building in front is the first main building of the Main Palace and is named “Hall of Frugality and Placidity”
乾隆帝曾经提到“自从汉、唐代以来,为了满足帝王的需要在首都以外大兴土木导致资源浪费,甚至毁灭—个国家。大家应避免重蹈覆辙。” It is the hall where emperors held grand celebrations and interviewed princes, dukes, ministers and foreign diplomatic envoys to build a strong border.
从历史中汲取教训,因此他所建的宫殿风格多以质朴见长,这个大殿是皇帝思想的一个具体体现。 One can explain easily why the sixth Panchen Lama, who was followed by a retinue of 2,000, walked 10,000 kilometers, covering an arduous journey of 500 days, to come to here to meet Emperor Qianlong.
澹泊敬诚殿耗银7.2两,用工19万人次。 The Hall was made of “nanmu” (a kind of high quality wood, hard and durable) with grey bricks and tiles and plain pillars. It is such a drastic contrast with the style of the Forbidden City.
殿中大理石铺地,梁柱、隔扇、天花板都为楠木所做,质地坚实,色泽古朴。清香淡淡。天花、隔扇上雕有精美的寿桃、? 蝙蝠、卷草等纹饰,呈“五福捧寿”和“万福万寿”图案。 Emperor Qianlong once commented, “Since the Han and Tang dynasties, dwelling palaces outside the capital have been constructed to satisfy the desires of the emperor, leading to a waste of resources, even the ruin of a dynasty. This we should avoid rather than imitate.”
《古今图书集成》一部被收藏在北部的书架上。 Having drawn a lesson from history, he set the tone of simplicity for the construction of the palace. The hall is an excellent embodiment of the emperor’s belief.
皇帝宝座两旁饰有仙鹤,后面是檀香木屏风,上面刻有163个栩栩如生,形态各异的人物的《耕织图》。它映射出皇帝对众生的关怀。 The hall cost 72,000 taels of silver and required 190,000 laborers.
三块金木黑字匾悬挂于澹泊敬诚殿的前檐下,上面有乾隆皇帝退隐“林下”后题写的三首咏志抒怀之作,诗中流露出古稀天子的喜怒哀乐,反映了当时皇帝的心情。 With a floor fully decorated with marble, it features many designs, such as peaches, the Chinese character for longevity, bats, coil grass and so on.It symbolized health, wealthy and longevity.
四知书屋是皇帝接见近臣和休息的地方,它也是皇帝接见重要客人的地方,在举行盛大典礼之前,皇帝一般在此更衣例如,皇帝曾在此接见过班禅喇嘛及英国使臣乔治.马戛尔尼。 ?Ten thousand books called The Overall Book Collection of Ancient and Present Times were kept on tile north bookshelves.
当时乾隆皇帝用茶和水果款待班掸喇嘛, The centre Throne is surrounded by crane carvings on both sides, and a red sandalwood screen behind; 163 lifelike images of various people are carved on it, reflecting the attention paid by the emperor to those around him.???? There are three gold-wooden black character boards that were inscribed by Emperor Qianlong after his abdication. These three poems span the gamut from happiness to angst, reflecting the mood of the times.
在盛宴后,乾隆皇帝再一次打破宫规,亲自邀请班禅喇嘛到后宫参观自己的寝宫。 The Sizhi Book House (the Four Knowledge study) is the place where the Emperor met close ministers and relaxed. Before tile grand ceremonies, the emperor changed attire here, and it is here that the Qing emperors had private audiences with VIPs such as the Panchen Lama and the British envoy George MeCartney.
烟波致爽殿是清帝的寝官,也是嘉庆和咸丰皇帝病逝的地方。 It is here that Emperor Qianlong entertained the Panhen Lama with a feast of tea and fruits.
“四围秀岭,十里澄湖,致有爽气”,康熙皇帝因此命名该宫殿为“烟波致爽”。 After the feast, Emperor Qianlong once more broke court regulations by personally inviting him to the rear palaces to visit the emperor‘s sleeping quarters.
1860年,英法联军攻打北京之后,咸丰帝携其母后及众嫔妃曾逃难至此。 The Hall of Refreshing Mists and Waves is the emperors’ bedchamber, and is where Emperors Jiaqing and Xianfeng died on their red sandalwood sickbeds.
咸丰帝曾在此批阅奏章,并批准他弟弟恭亲王与英法两国签订了《北京条约》,与俄国签订了《瑗珲条约》。 Emperor Kangxi named the hall such because the surrounding mountains and lakes freshened the palace and refreshed the Emperor’s mind.
这些条约不但丧权辱国,还使中国大量割地赔偿。 ?In 1860, when Allied troops attacked Beijing, Emperor Xianfeng escaped here with his mother and concubines.
乾隆帝用儒雅的格律诗,优美的书法作品,在承德留下了大量的匮额、碑文和优美的石刻作品,但他并没有预料到他的子孙后代也用同样优美的文字签订割让香港的《北京条约》。 His younger brother Prince Gong signed the Beijing treaty with England, France and accepted the Aihui Treaty with Russia.
西暖阁是咸丰帝的妃子也就是后来著名的慈禧太后的居所。 These treaties not only brought much humiliation to China, but also seized large territories from China. Emperor Qianlong left numerous tablets, stone carving works with elegant poems and beautiful calligraphy; but the great emperor of the Qing dynasty could not anticipate that his descendants would have to sign the “Beijing treaty”, which gave Hong Kong to Britain.
房间内现陈列着一些慈禧太后日常生活用品,“慈禧”是咸丰帝的赐名。意为“圣母”, he West chamber of the Hall was occupied by the concubine of Emperor Xianfeng, the famous Empress Dowager Cixi.
1861年,咸丰帝驾崩后,慈禧夺取了政权。开始了晚清时期对中国的统治,历时48年。 Displayed in the rooms are some articles from Cixi’s daily life.
山庄的苑景区的面积是北京颐和园的6倍, Cixi means “holy mother”, which was a name given her By the Xianfeng Emperor.
它分为湖区、平原区和山区。 After the Emperor’s death in 1861, she seized power and controlled China for 48 years during the late Qing dynasty.
湖区位于山庄的东南部,共有九湖十岛, The Garden area of the Mountain Resort is six times the size of the Palace area.
湖区中优美如画的景色多是仿中国的南方园林而建,山庄之湖统称塞湖, The Garden Area is made up of three parts: the Lake Zone, Plain Zone and mountain Zone.
在湖区游客可欣赏到的绝佳的景色有:青莲岛、如意洲岛、月色江声岛和环碧岛等。湖面上,绿柳倒垂,水波涟滟,清风习来,带来阵阵荷香。如此佳景,使人宛若置身于南方园林那诗画般的景色之中。 Lying in the southeast of the resort, the Lake Zone has nine lakes and ten islands.
山庄因山而得名,却因水而闻名。 Most of the scenic sites landscaped in the lake area were imitations of the gardens of southern China. The lakes are collectively known as the Saihu lakes.
漫步湖区,首先映人眼帘的便是水心榭,它位于—座石桥之上,有三处亭阁。 On the surface of the lakes, visitors can see Green Lotus Island, Happy Island, Island for Enjoying the Murmuring Water under the Moonlight and Green Enveloped Island on the lakes, the branches of weeping willows droop, and there are small green ripples on the lakes, with lotuses swaying in the gentle breeze--all reminiscent of a graceful scene in South China.
水心榭处,长堤相连,长堤可引你通往环碧岛、青莲岛和月色江声岛。登高下视,长堤“形若芝英,若云朵复若如意”。 The Mountain Resort gets its name from the mountain, but the most attractive part is its lake.
这连接三岛的长堤康熙皇帝命名为“芝径云堤”,为康熙所题三十六景的第二景早在康熙年间,逢农历七月十五日中元节时焚香,常在环碧岛举行盂兰盆会。 On a stroll in the Lake Zone, the first view one has from afar is the “Central Waterside Pavilions” area, which consists of three pavilions built on a stone bridge.
青莲岛主殿曾为皇帝学习之所。 The embankment underfoot leads to Green Enveloped Island, Green Lotus Island and Island for Enjoying the Water Songs under the Moonlight.
月色江声采用典型的四合院建筑,是王室成员夜晚赏月及观看歌舞表演之处。 Emperor Kangxi named the embankment and these islands “the Zigzagging Path and Cloud Embankment” in accordance with the shape. Green Enveloped Island was a place to hold an annual Ghost festival on July 15th of the lunar calendar.
青莲岛上的主体建筑是烟雨楼。此楼面宽五楹,上、下两层,楼上均有围廊。此楼乃效仿浙江嘉兴的烟雨楼而建,是欣赏雨态烟容之处,建于1 780年乾隆四十五年, The main hall on this island was used as the emperor‘s study.
每当下雨之时,烟雨楼内就会有薄烟升起,轻似薄纱,轻柔缥缈,使游客感觉如腾云驾雾一般。 The quadrangle courtyard compound on the Island for Enjoying the Murmuring Water under the Moonlight was an ideal place for the royal members enjoying the moonlight and performances in the evening.
举目远望,在假山林立的小岛之上隐约可见一座高耸的塔楼,那便是金山亭。 House of Mists and Rains on the Green Lotus Islet, a two-storey building by the riverside, is a copy of an identically named tower on the south Lake at Jiaxing City, Zhejiang Province. It served as the emperor’s study and a place for enjoying rainy weather.
在镇江有一座雄伟壮丽的七层古刹名为金山寺,因乾隆帝酷爱观赏此寺,因而在山庄依寺建亭,名为金山亭,金山亭分上中下三层。 When it is raining in the mountains, there will be a lot of mist rising up like diaphanous gauze that makes visitors feel they are flying.
与不远处的武烈河、热河泉相映成辉,这也恰好符合了金山寺的建筑艺术构思。 We can see a high tower located on an islet with a forest of rockeries, which is called the Golden Hill Pavilion.
此亭的顶层为皇穹宇,清代皇帝常携众嫔妃来此祭拜,以求国泰民安、繁荣昌盛。 It is modeled after the the seven-story Golden? Hill? Temple? in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province, near the Yangtze River and Zhongleng springs.
站在塔顶,山庄全景便可—览无余。 The three-story Golden Hill Pavilion in the Mountain Resort, which was built not far from Wulie River and near to Rehe springs, copied its artistic conception
热泉位于山庄的东北角,它的水温常年恒定,从不冻结,热河泉贯穿整个山庄,它全长仅为14.7公里,是世界上最短的河流。 The Emperor Qianlong was very fond of the beautiful Golden Hill Temple, so he planned to reproduce it in the Resort. The three story tower was called the good harvests and the consolidation of the country. This is the highest point in the Lake District.
继续北行,大家便来到了平原区。 One can get a panoramic of the resort by standing on the top floor.
平原区位于湖区的北方,占地53公顷,主要包括万树园,试马埭、永佑寺、六和塔等著名景点。 The Rehe (Jehol) spring is located in the northeast corner and is a hot spring. Running through the resort, it is the shortest river in the world only 14. g kilometers long--and never freezes.
平原景色朴素、宁静、祥和,令人心旷神迷。 Going north, we come to the Plain Zone.
平原区的西部是一片开阔的平原,骋草茵酶,林木茂盛,恰似一望无垠的内蒙占大草原风光,游客们可在此策马奔驰。 The Plain Zone is located on the north of the Lake Zone, covering an area of 53 hectares, which mainly include Wanshuyuan (Ten Thousand Trees Garden), Shimali (Horse Show Site), Permanent Blessing Temple and the Six Harmonies Pagoda and other tourist sites.
万树园中遍植参天古木,东部地区有28架蒙古包。 Scenery on the Plain Zone is charmingly simple and serene.
其中最大的御惺蒙古包,直径达七丈二尺,最小的备差蒙古包,直径二丈二尺,放眼望去,一派蒙古草原的自然风光。 The western part of the Plain Zone reflects a grassland scene from lnner Mongolia where visitors can ride horses.
清代的皇帝经常在这一望无际的草原上接见并宴赏蒙古等少数民族的王公贵族及外国使节。在接见赐宴的同时,封爵颁赏,并和他们一起观火戏、立马枝,杂技等。 The Ten Thousand Trees Garden is full of ancient trees and natural beauty, with 28 various Mongohan yurts to the east.
乾隆皇帝就曾在此接待杜尔伯特、厄鲁特蒙古部落的酋长以及英国使者乔治·马戛尔尼的朝觐,当时灯火辉煌,歌舞升平,勇土们在茫茫的草原上载歌载舞。 The Emperors usually hosted banquets in honor of ethnic minority nobles in the garden, had dinner with fireworks, lights, music and dancing and singing, wrestling matches and other activities, many displaying the strength and beauty of the warriors against the Backdrop of simple natural landscape.
文津阁是当时中国北方四大藏书楼之一。文津之名有两层含义:文,意为常识;津,则代表摆渡、传播;故而“文律”之意为传播常识。在清代,有七个著名的皇家藏书楼,其中北方有四个。文津阁和北京紫禁城内的文渊阁、圆明园的文源阁、沈阳故宫的文溯阁合称“内廷四阉”。 It is here that Emperor Qianlong received chieftains of the Dorbot and Torgut Mongolian tribes and feted them with banquets. It was also in one of these yurts that the British envoy George Macartney presented his credentials.
文津阁内收藏大量的子、史、经、集等著作,其中包括《四库全书》,此书由500名学者共同编写,含79070卷。 The knowledge imparting library was one of the four largest libraries in North China at that time named “Wenjin Pavilion”, it has two characters in its name----”wen” means knowledge and “jin” means ferry, so it means the ferry of knowledge, There are four Royal Library Pavilions of the Qing dynasty, which comprise the “Wensu Pavilion” in the Shenyang Imperial Palace, the “Wenyuan Pavilion” in the Forbidden City of Beijing, and the “Wenyuan Pavilion” in Yuanmingyuan of Beijing.
文津阁始建于1774年,于1782年竣工,仿浙江宁波天一阁而建。 It hosed a trove of classics on history, philosophy and literature, including The Complete Works of the Four Treasures and The Collection of Ancient and Contemporary Books The former was compiled by 500 scholars and contained 79,070 volumes.
外观重檐二层,内部结构三层,在上下楼层中建有夹层, The Wenjin Pavilion was built in 1774, finished in 1782 and was modeled after the “Tianyi Pavilion” of Ningbo City in Zhejiang province.
这种设计可使阁内的藏书免受因阳光直射,造成损耗。 If one looks at the exterior of the budding, it seems to have only two stories, but actually, it bas three stories with a mezzanine between the two upper and lower levels.
园内环绕的假山,形态各异,恰是承德十大名山的缩影。 It was designed for the purpose of protecting the books from sunlight damage.
东面的一座假山之上有个洞孔,形似一弯新月, The shape of the surrounding rockeries looks like the miniature of the ten famous mountains in the city. There is a moon terrace to the east of the rockery.
当你站在塘边正对小孔的位置时,就会在水面上看到一弯新月, If you stand on the moon terrace, you can see a crescent moon reflected in the pond below.
因为阳光穿过小孔照射到水面上便形成了新月的形状,这就是著名的“日月同辉”。 This is because the sun shone through a crescent shaped hole in those rockeries and created a moon-like image in the water.
避暑山庄的山区内主要的山谷从北到南依次为:松云峡、梨树峪、松林峪和棒子峪。 In the mountain area of the resort, there are four great valleys from north to south, pine-cloud valley, pear valley, pine valley and filbert valley.
最高山峰为四面云山,海拔510米,比平原高出180米,云海环绕。 The highest peak, Simianyunshan (“A Mountain Surrounded by Cloud Sea”) is 510 meters above sea level, and is 180 meters higher than the Plain Zone.
在避暑山庄内,仅康熙、乾隆两位皇帝就在山区中建造厂40多处楼阁、亭台、庙宇,它们或悬谷安亭,或山怀建轩,或绝壁座堂,或沉谷架舍,巧借自然之势,施以人工之美,异态分呈。 Emperors Kangxi and Qianlong had more than 40 buildings, pavilions, temples, and houses built inside the mountain region with small imperial paths and narrow winding tracks threading their way towards the hills.
山区的山势雄浑,山峦绵延,植被茂盛,清溪潺潺,四时之景各异。 There one can enjoy mountain scenery with dense forest, gurgling mountain brooks, deep ditches, steep peaks, gullies and valleys in all directions, which form different landscapes in the four seasons.
避暑山庄足皇家园林中规模宏大,独一无二的杰作,也是中国古代建筑史上的宝贵遗产, The resort is a unique, massive and outstanding masterpiece of imperial parks and gardens, and a precious legacy of ancient Chinese architecture.
回归自然是山庄设计者的建筑构想主题,而建造者也恰恰运用了高超的建筑技艺,使设计者的构想达到了最高境界。 Going back to nature is the design motif in its architecture, well consummated to the highest degree.
整个避暑山庄取自然山水之本色,蕴江南塞北之风光,成为中国皇家园林艺术荟萃的典范,极大地丰富了我国建筑学的艺术形式。 The entire Mountain Resort is a collection of the natural landscapes taken from throughout the country; it integrates the characteristics of scenes from across the country, while enriching the architectural style of the whole nation.
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