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赵 州 桥 The Zhaozhou Bridge
赵州桥的历史 History of the Zhaozhou Bridge
赵州桥公园以赵州桥为中心而建的。 The Zhaozhou Bridge Park has Zhaozhou Bridge as its center and gateway.
在公园的正门口,门楣上有块“瞻奇仰异”横匾,是清代顺治年间赵州知事孔兴训所书,此匾题字已被《中华名匾》一书所收录。 At the top of the gate, there is a plaque inscribed with four Chinese characters “Zhan Qi Yang Yi”, meaning “enjoying exquisiteness and wonder”. It was inscribed by a Zhaozhou official named Kong Xingxun in Qing Emperor Shunzhi’s reign and has been profiled in the book “Chinese Famous Plaques”.
这块影壁正面上选刻有我国已故著名桥梁专家茅以升先生的《中国石拱桥》的文章。 On one screen wall, the inscription in its front was selected from the article “Chinese Stone Arch Bridge”, which was written by Mao Yisheng, a well-known bridge expert.
茅老的这篇文章最早发表在1962年3月4日的《人民日报》上, Mr. Mao’s article was published in The China Daily on March 4,1962.
原文较长。以下节录的这段主要总结了赵州桥的情况。 The original transcript is rather long, but the following paragraph excerpted summarizes the Zhaozhou Bridge’s features.
茅老在文章中说:“我国的石拱桥几乎到处都有。 Mr. Mao wrote in the article, “We can see stone arch bridges nearly everywhere.
这些桥大小不一,形式多样,有许多是惊人的杰作。 These bridges vary in sizes and styles. Some of them are astonishing masterpieces.
其中最着名的当推河北省赵县的赵州桥”。 The most famous one is the Zhaozhou Bridge in Zhao County, Hebei Province”.
茅老对赵州桥的高度评价,科学、准确地概括了赵州桥的几个特点, Mr. Mao’s high praise for the Zhaozhou Bridge summarizes the bridge’s features scientifically and accurately.
阐述了赵州桥的科学价值、历史价值,艺术价值以及它在世界桥梁建筑史上的突出贡献和重要地位。 He also expatiates on its scientific value, historical value, and artistic value as well as on the outstanding contribution it represents and the importance of its place in world bridge construction history.
这条道路在历史上就有,过去老百姓一直把它叫做“皇道”。 The road has existed for a long time and was called “Imperial Road” by the general populace in the past.
在隋朝时经由赵州桥的这条南北大通道,向南可直达东都洛阳,向北则贯穿涿郡,通入现在的北京,相当于现在的107国道。 In Sui Dynasty, the north-south route passing the bridge reached to the eastern capital of Luoyang in the south, and passed through Zhuojun to where Beijing is located today in the north, being equivalent to the 107 National Highway does today.
乾隆皇帝下江南时,三次所走的陆路。都是从赵州桥上经过而南下的。 When Emperor Qianlong went to inspect the southern reaches of the Yangtze River, the three routes all passed by the Zhaozhou Bridge.
一百到1984年建公园以前,赵州桥仍作为一个正常的文通运输桥梁发挥着作用。 The Zhaozhou Bridge played the role of an important transportation link and as a conventional bridge until 1984, when the park was built.
所以说,赵州桥不但保持了一千多年。而且一直使用了一千多年,这在全世界都是非常罕见的。 Over the centuries Zhaozhou Bridge not only had existed for more than 1,000 years, but also had been used for more than 1,000 years— a rarity in the history of bridges, It is natural that the designer and constructor Li Chun aroused people’s respect and admiration.
矗立在这里的硅青铜塑像就是赵州桥的设计建造者--李春。 A silicon bronze statue standing nearby is that of Li Chun, the Zhaozhou Bridge’s designer and builder
这尊铜像是由中央美术学院钱绍武教授设计督造的。历史上有关李春的记载很少,但有一句话却是非常确凿有力的, This statue was designed and its execution supervised by Qian Shaowu, a professor from the China Central Academy of Fine Arts, Although the historical records concerning Li Chun are scant, one sentence is extremely conclusive.
即唐玄宗开元年间的中书令张嘉贞曾在《唐文粹》一书中写道:“赵郡洨河石桥。隋匠李春之迹也”。这一锤定音地指明了赵州桥的建造者就是隋朝的李春。 Zhang Jiazhen, an official who served during the Tang Emperor Xuanzong’s reign, wrote in the book Tang Wen Cui, “The stone bridge over the Xiao River in Zhao County was built by Sui workman Li Chun.” thereby providing compelling evidence that Li Chun was the builder of the bridge.
赵州桥全长 50.82米,始建于隋朝。 The 50.82-meter-long bridge was built in the Sui Dynasty.
距今已有1400年的悠久历史,是现存于世最古老的一座石拱桥典范, It is 1,400 years old and it is the oldest stone arch bridge in the world.
是首批公布的国家级重点文物保护单位, With a view to the eminent position in the history of bridge construction, Zhaozhou Bridge was in the first group of national key cultural relic sites listed by the State Council.
也是省级爱国主义教育基地,已列人世界学问遗产后备名录。 It also functions as one of the provincial patriotic education bases.
并且是世界上第12处国际土木工程历史古迹。 It is the 12th international historical construction relic and has been listed among the United Nations World Heritage Candidates.
古代工程的成就 A Triumph of Ancient Engineering
这块铜质的标志牌是赵州桥在国际上占有重要地位的标志之一。下面的落款为“美国土木工程师学会敬立”。学会代表的是国际性土木工程的权威组织。 There is a bronze plaque, which is one of the symbols of the Zhaozhou Bridge’s world significance, inscribed by the American Society of Civil Engineers.
它直在全世界范围内精选历史土木工程上的杰作载入史册,并颁发铜质纪念牌作纪念。 This society is an authoritative organization in the field of international civil engineering.
大家现在看到的这块牌子是复制品,原件已经珍藏入库。 It has been selecting outstanding civil engineering projects worldwide and awarded a bronze memorial plaque to acknowledge this bridge’s construction.
1991年9月4日下午,在“热烈欢迎美国贵宾”的标语下和仪仗队的鼓乐声中,该学会名誉主席本·格威克教授一行三人亲临现场,进行了颁发仪式。 What is displayed now is a copy, the original one being kept in storage.
当时红底白字会标上的中英文写的是“国际土木工程历史古迹纪念碑揭幕仪式”。 On the afternoon of September 4, 1991, with a greeting reading “Welcome Our American Guest with Open Arms” and with the accompaniment of the honor guard’s music, the honorary chairman of the society, Professor Ben Gewick hosted the ceremony and awarded the plaque.
国际上与之并列的还有法国的埃菲尔铁塔、埃及的金字塔、英国的伦敦塔桥以及苏伊士运河等。 The white words in the red ceremony slogan read, “UNVEILING CEREMONY OF INTERNATIONAL HISTORIC CIVIL ENGINEERING LANDMARK”.
这块纪念牌成为当时世界上第12块国际土木工程历史古迹纪念铜牌,也是中国唯一的一块。 Other, equivalent engineering feats are the Eiffel Tower in France, the London Tower Bridge in England and the Suez Cannel.
当地老百姓都把赵州桥叫做“神桥”,传说只要一走上它,就能感应到上天和神的灵验,一切都会吉祥如意。 This plaque is the 12th international historic civil engineer memorial plaque, and the only one in China.
赵州桥桥面的宽度约10米,相当于现在国家二级公路标准。 The local people call this bridge “God Bridge”, saying that if you step on it, you will be blessed by heaven and god, and you will have good luck.
当年桥上也是人来人往,车水马龙:桥下百舸争流,千帆竞度,一派繁华景象。滚滚东流的洨河水,带着百姓的欢声笑语,汇人大海。 The bridge is about 10 meters wide, which measures up to the standard of our national highway level II.
“安济桥”是赵州桥的正式名字。 We can imagine the prosperous life at that time: crowds of people and carriages passing on the bridge; rows of boats scuttling under the bridge, with the flowing Xiao River carrying the joyful laughter of ordinary people out to the sea.
它是北宋时哲宗皇帝北巡时,这经这里所赐的名称, “Anji” is the official name of the bridge.
所以赵州桥的正名叫安济桥。 It was given by the North Song Emperor Zhezong, who passed the bridge while on a journey to the north.
“大石桥”是当地老百姓对赵州桥的俗称,算是它的小名吧,所以该桥所处的村落也称“大石桥村”。 So the formal name should be “Anji Bridge”.
站在这里可以仔细观赏到赶州桥的神韵,感觉到赵州桥的宏伟与博大。 The local people call it “Great Stone Bridge”; hence, the village where the bridge located is called the Great Stone Bridge village.
赵州桥单孔跨度为37.37米,当时在世界上占第一位,在石拱桥的单孔跨度上达到了极限。 Standing here, one can appreciate the verve and grandeur of the bridge.
因此,可以说赵州桥是世界上年代最久远、保存最完整、单孔跨距最大的敞肩式石拱桥。 The span of its large stone arch in the middle measures 37.37 meters, making it the world’s largest arch at the time it was constructed.
 为什么世界上许多的古代建筑大都坍塌损坏了,而惟独赵州桥历经千年风雨沧桑,仍能巍然屹立呢? So we can say that it is the oldest and the most completely protected open-spandrel segmental bridge with the largest arch in the world.
长寿建筑的秘密 Given that so many ancient constructions have long since collapsed, one may wonder why the Zhaozhou Bridge can survive thousand of years and remain standing.
首先要归功于赵州桥独特的建造方法。 Secret of Structural Longevity
查看桥拱的背面,大家可以发现,顺着桥的纵向延伸方向,是一道又一道的拱圈,就像大家人的手指一样并在一起,这叫做纵向并列砌筑法。 First, its survival is due in part to the unique construction skill it embodies.If one inspects the back of the arch, it will be noticed that there are interwoven lines of arches lengthways, just like our fingers put together.
1933年11月,我国杰出的建筑学专家粱思成先生(粱启超之子)曾到赵州桥进行过实地考察, This represents a lengthwise juxtaposition construction skill.
当他看到这种造桥方法时深感意外。 In November 1931, the famous architect Liang Sicheng, son of the renowned Liang qichao, conducted a field investigation.
因为从占至今,人们大都采用横向并列法建造桥拱,李春为什么会采用纵向法造桥呢? When he saw this bridge construction method, he was quite surprised.
这是因为纵向造拱,可以化整为零,节省人力、物力。 For in all ages, people had been building bridges along the breadth of the bridges; but why did Li Chun do it another way?
先由一道拱圈翻起, That is because by this method, the bridge can be broken up into component parts and allow for construction and repair that can economize on labor and material resources.
砌完后这道拱圈就可独立站稳,依次再砌下一道,直至全部完工。 Construction began from the first arch.
由于每道拱圈都独立存在,所以假如有一道拱圈发生损坏时,对其他拱圈和整体桥身没有直接影响,便于单独对它进行维修。 When it was finished, it continued with the next —one by one until the whole bridge was completed.
也就是说这种造桥法,当初建造时就方便实用,以后维修时也很方便。 Every arch existed independently; if one arch broke, it would not have any direct effect on the other arches or on the bridge as a whole.
为了加强石料之间的横向联系,古代匠师们还创造性地采用了腰铁、勾石、铁拉杆等一系列科学措施和技术,起到了现代建材钢筋、水泥等相同的作用。 That is to say, this design is convenient for both construction and bridge maintenance.
千百年来,赵州桥经受住了十多次规模较大的地震的严峻考验,包括1966年3月发生在邢台的7.2级大地震。 n order to strengthen the transverse link between stone slabs, the ancient stonemasons made use of iron dovetails, stone, iron poles, etc., which function much like the modern construction materials, such as rebar and cement.
当时震中距离起州桥还不到40公里,而赵州桥却安然无恙。 Since it was first built, the bridge has withstood more than ten earthquakes, including a 7.2- magnitude earthquake in Xingtai in March 1966.
赵州桥还躲过了多次大洪水的侵袭,在1963年和1996年8月的特大洪水冲击下,赵州桥经受丁考验而丝毫未损。 The earthquake epicenter was no more than 40 kilometers from the Zhaozhou Bridge, but the bridge remained safe and sound.
也许有朋友要问:赵州桥为什么能有如此牢固的抗震力呢? Moreover, it has survived many floods. Stricken by two cataclysmic floods in 1963 and August 1996, the Zhaozhou Bridge was completely undamaged.
这就要从它的下部基础说起了。 Someone may ask why the bridge is able to withstand powerful earthquakes.
千百年来,关于赵州桥的基础如何一直是个谜,并存有种种假设性的说法。 The answer lies in its base.
1979年,中国社会科学院自然科学史研究小组对赵州桥桥台基础进行了钻探勘察,其发现结果令人大吃一惊。 ?For thousands of years, the base of the bridge has remained a mystery, fuelling various speculations.
赵州桥桥台之短,地基之浅,出人意料。 In 1979, a natural sciences history research team from the Chinese Academy of Historical Research and Social and Natural Sciences drilled the groundwork and made a survey of the bridge.
桥台仅由五层排石垒成,高1.549米,长约5米,桥台面积约为100平方米。 The result surprised everyone: the bridge abutment is very short and the base is shallow.
桥台下的土质由第四纪冲积层的亚黏土和轻亚黏土构成,和大家脚下的土质没什么两样。 The 1.549-meter-tall and 5-mete-long bridge abutment is made of five layers of slab stones, covering an area of about 100 square meters.
根据化验分析,这种土层稳定性强。 The soil is made up of loam and low plasticity clay from the Quaternary alluvium, similar to that beneath the feet of visitors at the bridge site.
土质均匀,基本承载力为34吨/平方米, According to the test analysis results, this kind of soil layer is even and has good stability.
并且黏土层压缩性小,地震时不会产 It can bear 34 tons of weight per square meter.
由于科学利用了土壤结构,进行了合理设计,所以桥墓两侧受力均衡。 The compressibility is small and it will not produce sand liquefaction in the event of an earthquake.
遇震时能克服不均匀沉降, Because the bridge’s construction has scientifically utilized the soil structure and it is rationally designed, the forces on both sides of the bridge are balanced.
因此地震和洪灾对赵州桥的整体稳定性不构成影响。 The uneven submergence of ground caused by an earthquake is overcome.
在这样的天然地基和这样小的桥台上,却能建造出这样大跨度的石拱桥,这在中外建桥史上确是十分罕见的。 ?Therefore, earthquakes and floods have a meager impact on the bridge’s stability.
总结起来,大家了解了赵州桥千年不坠的两个重要原因,那就是赵州桥独特的建造方法和对天然地基的科学测算和利用。 It is rare, both at home and abroad, that such a large span stone bridge could be built on such a small abutment and natural groundwork.
然而,赵州桥千年不坠的最重要原因当是李春划时代的创举—一即敞肩圆弧拱式桥型(简称敞肩拱)的发明及运用。 To summarize, we know the two main reasons why the Zhaozhou Bridge has never collapsed: one is the unique construction method and the other one is the scientific measurement and usage of the natural groundwork.
所谓敝肩圆弧拱式桥型就是指以赵州桥为代表首创的这种桥型, However, the most important reason is Li Chun’s epoch making pioneering work, the innovation and adoption of the open spandrel arch.
即在中央主拱两侧的桥肩上分别挖开了两两对称的四个小拱, The so-called “open-spandrel bridge” has the Zhaozhou Bridge as the first example.
做成“空撞券”。 On the two sides of the central arch are four paratactic small arches
它到底有什么优越性呢? This structure is called “open spandrel”
首先是加大了宜泄量,四个小拱可增大过水面积达16.5%, What advantages does it have?
减轻了水流对桥的水平冲击力,增强了保护桥身的作用; First, it expands the water discharge channel by 16.5%.
其次,空撞券的建筑形式敞开了肩部,又节省厂石料,不但大大节省了人力物力, So the shock to the bridge is reduced and protection of it is increased.
更重要的是减轻了桥身自重,分散了桥身对桥台地基的垂直压力, Secondly, the open-spandrel structure saves not only labor, but also stone materials.
所以赵州桥的桥台才可以造得那么轻巧实用,并且直接坐落在天然地基之上。 What is most important is that it reduces the weight of the bridge and disperses the bridge’s vertical pressure into the groundwork.
再看李春的这种设计, That is why the abutment was exquisitely built and could be placed on the natural base.
在敞肩的四个小拱拱石外围,还铺设了一层16—30毫米拱顶薄填石,恰好符合了材料力学弹性拱的原理, Let us get back to Li Chun’s design.
大家知道,弹性拱原理是十九世纪才形成于文字的理论,在世界上只有不到200年的历史, On the border of the four small arches is a layer of 16-30 mm stones, which happened to accord with the principle of flexible arch in material mechanics.
但在1400年之前。中国的李春已经成功地将这一原理运用到实践中去了。 As is widely known, the principle of the flexible arch was part of a theory formed only as late as the 19th century with a history of no more than 200 years.
这不能不说是一个世界奇迹。 However, 1,400 years earlier, Li Chun had already applied this principle in practice successfully.
通俗地讲,运用材料力学的弹性拱原理造桥,这种结构就可以将受力点的力分散到桥的每一个横截面上, Generally speaking, the bridge structure incorporating the flexible arch principle in material mechanics can disperse every point of pressure to the cross-section equally.
赵州桥之所以千年不坠,正是缘于李春这种敞肩拱式桥型设计的高度科学性和合理性, The reason why the Zhaozhou Bridge has remained standing for more than a millennium is attributable to the high technology and rationality of Li Chun’s open-spandrel design.
也是赵州桥学派在世界桥梁建筑史上最重要的贡献。 It is one of the most important contributions from the Zhaozhou Bridge School in the history of world bridge engineering.
大家完全可以说,赶州桥首开了敞肩拱式桥型的先河。 We can say that it is Zhaozhou Bridge that marks the advent of the open-spandrel bridge.
而西方第一次出现这种桥型是在1883年, It was in 1883 that the same kind of bridge appeared in Europe for the first time.
当时法国在亚哥河上建造了安排尼特铁路石拱桥,但它至少已经比赵州桥晚了1200多年。 The French built the Pont Antionnette Sur Lagou railway stone arch bridge across the Yage River, but it was at least 1,200 years later than the Zhaozhou Bridge.
难怪英国的李约瑟博士总结说:“李春以及他所创造的敞肩式拱桥比欧洲同种类型桥的出现,确实优先达千年以上。” Dr. Li Joseph from Britain summarizes it this way: “is true that Li Chun and his open-spandrel bridge are one millennium earlier than that in Europe”.
我国著名桥梁专家茅以升先生曾指出:“赵州桥是一座单孔石拱桥。 Mao Yisheng, the Chinese famous bridge engineer, pointed out that “The Zhaozhou Bridge is a single arch stone bridge.
中国石拱桥的出现虽早于隋代,但赵州桥却具有创新特点和重大技术成就。 The appearance of the Chinese stone arch bridge antedates the Sui dynasty, but the Zhaozhou Bridge embodies innovative characteristics and great technological achievements.
它以石块砌筑,弓形的拱圈拼法也有特殊, It is made of stone slabs and the bow-like arch is unique.
更为巧妙的矗在主拱圈之上加设小拱,不愧是‘敝肩’式结构的先驱。 What is most significant is that he made small arches on the main arch.? He really deserves to be called the pioneer of open spandrel design.
一千多年来的使用实践证明,赵州桥的建筑传统,不但为中外石拱桥普遍继承,也为现代的钢筋混凝土拱桥所广泛应用,并出现了各种新的发展。” The application of these design principles for more than one thousand years proves that the Zhaozhou Bridge’s tradition is not only generally inherited by the Chinese and foreign stone bridges, but also widely adopted in the construction of the modern reinforced concrete arch bridge. ‘
确实,敲肩拱的应用,不但使桥形变得更加优美, Indisputably, the application of open spandrel design makes the bridge more exquisite.
最重要的是它有节省材料、减轻自重、简化桥基、宣泄洪水的几个作用和功能。 The most important thing is that it saves materials, lightens its weight, simplifies the base of the bridge, and discharges floodwaters.
它的设计和建筑结构科学合理、稳定性强。 Its design and structure are scientific, rational and stable.
千百年来,赵州桥的结构技巧、艺术风格被广泛地借鉴运用, Through the ages, the structural skill and artistic style of the Zhaozhou Bridge are widely used as a reference point.
对世界桥梁建筑有着不可磨灭的突出贡献,是当之无愧的桥梁之祖! It has made an indelible outstanding contribution to the world of bridge engineering and deserves the appellation “Father of Bridges”.
赵州桥是我国古代劳动人民留下的珍贵学问遗产。 The Zhaozhou Bridge is a precious cultural heritage that the ancient Chinese artisans and engineers left as a legacy.
它见证了中华民族的聪明智慧,也见证了世界文明古国历史学问的灿烂辉煌,同时还见证了整个人类的文明和力量。 It has been a teslament to our nation’s intelligence, wisdom, historical and cultural magnificence, the prosperity of our ancient civilization, and a monolithic witness to the civilization and strength of all human beings everywhere.
多少年来,它一直受到全世界的敬重和称颂, Over the years, it has been respected and widely praised throughout the world.
今天,它更应改激励着大家去充分发挥自己的聪明才智,为建设富强昌盛的祖国贡献自己的力量! Today, it should encourage us to give full play to our own intelligence and wisdom, and even more to play a part in building a prosperous and strong motherland!
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